Доместикация и мозг: сорок лет спустя


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ17.259

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Аннотация

Доместикация диких животных – краеугольный камень цивилизации. Идея Д.К. Беляева об основе доместикации как бессознательном отборе человеком каменного века неагрессивных животных была подтверждена многолетними уникальными работами Института цитологии и генетики по доместикации серебристо-черных лисиц, крыс-пасюков и американских норок. Обзор посвящен роли медиаторов мозга в механизмах доместикации. Полученные в наших исследованиях данные свидетельствуют об участии серотониновой системы мозга в перестройке поведения при селекции животных на низкую агрессивность. Установлено, что доместикация, превращающая агрессивное дикое животное в неагрессивное и дружелюбное, сопровождается у животных разных видов (серебристо-черных лисиц, крыс-пасюков и норок) изменением основных молекулярных элементов, определяющих функциональную активность серотониновой системы. Агрессивные и неагрессивные животные различаются по уровню серотонина в мозге, по активности основных ферментов метаболизма серотонина и по экспрессии серотониновых рецепторов. Активность катализирующей синтез серотонина в мозге триптофангидроксилазы-2 у неагрессивных животных повышена, активность фермента деградации моноаминоксидазы А – понижена. Доместицированные крысы отличаются от агрессивных и по экспрессии серотониновых 5-НТ1А-рецепторов: уровень мРНК 5-НТ1А-рецептора, плотность рецепторов в структурах мозга и функциональная активность у них выше, чем у агрессивных. Все это свидетельствует о существенной роли нейромедиатора мозга серотонина в эволюционном процессе доместикации животных. Особое внимание в обзоре обращено на роль медиаторов мозга в коррелятивной изменчивости при селекции по поведению. Представлен комплекс доказательств нашей гипотезы, согласно которой одним из механизмов возникновения важнейших коррелятивных признаков при доместикации – изменений в основной системе стресса (гипоталамогипофизарно-надпочечниковой) и регулятора репродукции (гипоталамо-гипофизарно-половой) – является вовлечение в селекционный процесс серотониновой системы мозга, которая, наряду с функцией регулятора агрессивного поведения, контролирует эндокринные железы.


Об авторе

Н. К. Попова
Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук
Россия


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