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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

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Генетическая линия крыс Крушинского – Молодкиной как уникальная экспериментальная модель судорожных состояний

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ17.261

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Аннотация

Исследование генетических механизмов, лежащих в основе нормальных и патологических признаков поведения животных, важно не только для общего понимания работы центральной нервной системы (ЦНС) позвоночных, но и для благополучия человека, в частности в борьбе с заболеваниями мозга. Накопление знаний о функциях генов, экспрессирующихся в ЦНС и связанных со специфическими функциями мозга, которые сегодня определяются успехами молекулярной генетики, не делает менее актуальным исследование фенотипического проявления генетически детерминированных признаков, в особенности патологических. Эпилепсия как одно из заболеваний ЦНС занимает важное место в таких работах. Несмотря на большое количество новых противосудорожных средств, значительная доля случаев этой болезни по-прежнему не поддается лечению. В связи с этим исследование механизмов эпилептогенеза на моделях востребовано, поскольку может способствовать выявлению тех особенностей развития повышенной судорожной готовности, которые пока остаются мало изученными. Одним из четких, но непростых для генетического исследования признаков является аудиогенная эпилепсия (судороги в ответ на сильный звук), которая рассматривается в этой статье. Важное свойство аудиогенной эпилепсии как модели – возможность анализа интенсивных тонических судорог в условиях хронического эксперимента (т. е. с повторной провокацией этого состояния у одного и того же животного, что невозможно в случае фармакологических или «электрошоковых» судорог). В статье дается краткая характеристика инбредной линии крыс Крушинского – Молодкиной, первой из линий, селектированных на этот признак. Характерный «рисунок» судорожного припадка, наиболее частое проявление его у грызунов, постиктальные аномальные состояния (в частности, каталепсия) и ряд других патологических признаков делают этот феномен важным не только как модель патологии, но и как явление общебиологической значимости. Влияние генетического фона (продемонстрированное для случаев коморбидности этих судорог с депрессией и тревожностью) может оказаться решающим фактором в определении механизмов других аномалий ЦНС. Развитие аудиогенных судорог как физиологического феномена, сопровождающего другие патологические состояния, было также предметом исследований коллег Д.К. Беляева в Институте цитологии и генетики.

Об авторах

И. И. Полетаева
Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова
Россия
биологический факультет


З. А. Костына
Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова
Россия
биологический факультет


Н. М. Сурина
Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова
Россия
биологический факультет


И. Б. Федотова
Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова
Россия
биологический факультет


З. А. Зорина
Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова
Россия
биологический факультет


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