Кошки и собаки, в отличие от их диких сородичей, соблюдают правило Ренша


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ17.263

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Синдром доместикации, обнаруженный Чарльзом Дарвином, показывает, что доместицированные виды приобрели ряд новых морфологических, физиологических и поведенческих характеристик, которых не было у их диких предков. Поскольку размер тела и половой диморфизм по размеру тела (ПДРТ) являются важнейшими видовыми характеристиками, влияющими почти на все аспекты жизни животных, мы изучили влияние доместикации на эти два показателя у домашних собак и кошек в сравнении с их сородичами: собачьими и кошачьими, а также проанализировали применимость правила Ренша для обоих домашних видов. В анализ были включены данные по максимальной высоте в холке у 89 пород собак и максимальной массе тела у 64 пород собак и 37 пород кошек. Кроме того, использованы данные по массе тела 36 диких видов собачьих и 36 видов кошачьих, полученные в ходе более ранних исследований. Результаты показали, что значения массы тела и их диапазон у домашних собак значительно превышают эти показатели у представителей семейства Canidae в целом, в то время как соответствующие показатели ПДРТ у них схожи. У домашних кошек диапазон значений массы тела укладывается в диапазон значений, характерных для их видов-предшественников, но при этом существенно сужен, тогда как значения соответствующих показателей ПДРТ сравнимы. Регрессии, полученные как стандартным методом главных осей (RMA), так и методом наименьших квадратов (OLS), показали, что у домашних видов размеры тела самок и самцов подчиняются правилу Ренша, а у их диких сородичей – нет. Данные результаты обсуждаются в свете существующих знаний о доместикации видов Canis familiaris и Felis catus.


Об авторах

К. Х. Бидау

Аргентина

Олагер 444, Ломас-дель-Мирадор, провинция Буэнос-Айрес, 1752, Аргентина



П. А. Мартинес
Федеральный университет Сержипи
Бразилия

Лаборатория комплексных исследований биоразнообразия отдела биологии 


просп. Марешал Рондон, Жардин Роза Элзи, Сан-Кристован, 49100-000, Бразилия



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