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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

Расширенный поиск

Современные подходы к синтезу генов: аспекты синтеза олигонуклеотидов, ферментативной сборки, проверки последовательностей и коррекции ошибок

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ18.387

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Синтетическая биология – быстро развивающаяся отрасль науки, нацеленная на создание биологических систем с предсказанными свойствами. При этом она использует достижения современной биологии, программирования и компьютерного моделирования, а также инженерной отрасли для создания биологических объектов, обладаю­щих набором заранее заданных пользовательских свойств. Развитие синтетической биологии было обусловлено множеством технологических разработок в каждой из упомя­нутых отраслей. Так, значительное снижение стоимости технологии секвенирования ДНК привело к наработке больших объемов данных о генетических последователь­ностях различных организмов. Снижение стоимости син­теза последовательностей ДНК в соответствии с законом Мура позволило создавать библиотеки синтетических генов, представляющие потенциальный интерес в работе генных инженеров без необходимости использования традиционных и трудоемких методов молекулярной био­логии. Благодаря развитию системной биологии сфор­мировано глубокое понимание взаимосвязей и функций природных биологических моделей, а также построены прогностические модели, описывающие молекулярные процессы на клеточном и системном уровнях. Комбина­ция вышеперечисленных факторов создала возможность осознанного изменения природных биологических систем. В данном обзоре обсуждается современное состояние подходов к синтезу олигонуклеотидов для последующей сборки генных конструкций и к ферментативной сборке генов. Освещены аспекты использования различного программного обеспечения для подбора олигонуклеоти­дов для последующей сборки генов, проверки точности синтезированной последовательности генов, а также ис­правления ошибок.

Об авторах

Г. Ю. Шевелев
Институт химической биологии и фундаментальной медицины Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук; Новосибирский государственный университет
Россия
Новосибирск


Д. В. Пышный
Институт химической биологии и фундаментальной медицины Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук; Новосибирский государственный университет
Россия
Новосибирск


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