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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

Расширенный поиск

Содержание желтых пигментов в зерне твердой пшеницы (Triticum durum Desf.): биосинтез, генетический контроль, маркерная селекция

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ20.642

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Зерно с высоким содержанием каротиноидных пигментов ценится за ярко-желтый цвет пасты, производимой из него, и провитаминную (витамин А) и антиоксидантную активность пигментов. Цель настоящего обзора – обобщение современных знаний о биосинтезе и генетическом контроле накопления пигментов в зерне твердой пшеницы и оценка основных результатов исследований и селекции за последние двадцать лет за рубежом и в России. Признак «концентрация каротиноидных пигментов в зерне» (Ypc) относится к разряду количественных. Тем не менее превалирование сильных аддитивных эффектов генов и высокая наследуемость способствовали значительному прогрессу в селекции по этому признаку. Методами молекулярного маркирования локусов количественных признаков (QTL), контролирующих синтез каротиноидных пигментов и значения индекса желтизны (IY), установлено их распределение по всем хромосомам генома твердой пшеницы. Основные генетические локусы, определяющие более 60 % варьирования признака, были картированы в хромосомах 7AL и 7BL. Вклад этих локусов связан с аллельными вариациями, влияющими на активность фермента фитоенсинтетазы (PSY). В других хромосомах были локализованы минорные генетические факторы, из которых наиболее значимы QTL, расположенные в хромосомах 3AS (ассоциирован с геном LCYE-ликопинε-циклаза) и 4ВS (аллель Lpx-B1.1c). При этом показано, что аллель Lpx-B1.1c вносит вклад в снижение активности липоксигеназы, окисляющей каротиноиды в процессе изготовления конечных продуктов. Рассмотрены и обсуждены проблемы использования молекулярных маркеров в селекционных программах, нацеленных на увеличение концентрации пигментов в зерне и улучшение цветовых характеристик пасты.

Об авторах

П. Н. Мальчиков
Самарский федеральный исследовательский центр Российской академии наук, Самарский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства им. Н.М. Тулайкова
Россия

пгт Безенчук, Самарская область



М. Г. Мясникова
Самарский федеральный исследовательский центр Российской академии наук, Самарский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства им. Н.М. Тулайкова
Россия

пгт Безенчук, Самарская область



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