Собачий узел: систематический обзор рода Canis и предложения по таксономии


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ15.036

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Несмотря на значительное внимание исследователей, систематика и таксономия млекопитающих рода Canis относятся к наиболее спорным и запутанным. Многие таксоны, входящие в этот род, не соответствуют ни одной из существующих концепций вида, а генетические различия между видами малы. Обзор существующих противоречий, новейших данных и таксономических альтернатив позволяет рекомендовать наиболее обоснованные и практически целесообразные решения таксономических проблем. Границы рода подлежат пересмотру: два вида африканских шакалов (C. adustus и C. mesomelas) должны быть выделены в отдельный род Lupulella. Систематическое положение представителей рода, обитающих на востоке Северной Америки, вызывало ожесточенные дискуссии. Последние данные подтверждают видовую самостоятельность и древнее гибридное происхождение волков алгонкинского (C. lycaon lycaon) и рыжего (C. l rufus и недавно истребленных подвидов), а также недавнее гибридное происхождение двух других популяций. Особенно противоречивы систематическое положение, внутривидовая классификация, происхождение и таксономия собаки. Ее классифицируют как подвид или группу подвидов серого волка (C. lupus), подвид динго (C. dingo) или, наоборот, как самостоятельный вид (C. familiaris) с динго в качестве подвида. Анализ имеющихся данных показывает, что собака должна классифицироваться как самостоятельный вид с четырьмя подвидами, поскольку ее происхождение от общего с современным серым волком предка, вопреки распространенному мнению, предшествовало доместикации, а способность к гибридизации с серым волком в природе ограничена. Возможно, что первично популяции собак существовали в Юго-Восточной Азии до недавнего времени или даже существуют до сих пор.


Об авторе

В. Динец
Факультет психологии, Университет Теннесси, Ноксвилль, TN 37996 США
Россия


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