Подходы по улучшению качества зерна пшеницы: селекция на число падения


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ15.07

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Число падения (ЧП) отражает уровень активности альфа-амилазы в зерне/муке и является международным стандартом качества зерна. Чем ниже ЧП, тем ниже качество зерна и его цена. Главные причины снижения ЧП – видимое или скрытое предуборочное прорастание (ПП) в условиях неблагоприятной погоды. Решающую роль в получении стабильно высокого ЧП играет селекция на устойчивость к предуборочному прорастанию (УкПП), а также непосредственно на ЧП. В последние десятилетия достигнут большой прогресс в понимании биохимических и молекулярных процессов, происходящих при ПП; изучении генетического контроля УкПП и ЧП, в разработке методов селекции на УкПП и ЧП. В России селекция на эти признаки и соответствующие теоретические исследования еще не получили должного развития и отражения в литературе. Показаны генетическая сложность и контекст-зависимость признаков УкПП и ЧП. Специфика селекции на высокий уровень УкПП и ЧП включает удаление LMA-генотипов (LMA, late maturity α-amylase) при подборе родителей для скрещивания и в ранних поколениях гибридов, выбор генетически различных доноров целевых признаков, методы оценки сортов и линий на УкПП и ЧП в разных условиях внешней среды, определение размера F2 популяций с учетом необходимости сочетания УкПП и ЧП с высокой продуктивностью, качеством зерна и другими признаками. Новые перспективы в селекции открывают новые подходы и методы, в частности перевод гетерозигот в гомозиготное состояние (DH-метод), а также ДНК-технологии, обеспечивающие обоснованный подбор доноров УкПП и ЧП, пирамидирование желательных аллелей и эффективный отбор с помощью функциональных или тесно сцепленных молекулярных маркеров.

Об авторах

В. А. Крупнов
"Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение Научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства Юго-Востока,Саратов, Россия"
Россия


О. В. Крупнова
"Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение Научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства Юго-Востока,Саратов, Россия"
Россия


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