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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

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Источники хозяйственно ценных признаков для селекции пшеницы мягкой яровой (Triticum aestivum L.) в условиях лесостепи Приобья Новосибирской области

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ16.166

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Аннотация

Эффективность использования доноров в селекции растений в значительной мере зависит от степени изученности физиолого-генетической природы селекционно ценных признаков. Работа направлена на оценку количественных признаков (масса 1000 зерен, масса зерна, число зерен и число колосков колоса) у сортов пшеницы мягкой яровой различных групп спелости с целью выявления образцов с высокой продуктивностью и устойчивостью к стрессам, наиболее экологически адаптированных к региону. Количественные признаки были изучены у 139 сортообразцов пшеницы мягкой яровой, сгруппированных по продолжительности вегетационного периода: среднеранние и ранние, среднеспелые и среднепоздние. Показано, что средние за 3 года значения массы зерна колоса, числа зерен с колоса, числа колосков в колосе сортов Ленинградская 97 и Росинка 1 среднеранней и ранней групп спелости достоверно превы- шают средние значения признаков в группе спелости. В группе среднеспелых сортов высокой выраженностью двух и более признаков характеризовались сорта Баганская 51, Прохоровка, Омская кормовая, Амир и Лада, достоверно превысившие средние значения по группе. В среднепоздней группе спелости выделены: Омская 24 (масса зерна, число зерен и колосков в колосе), Сибирская 16 (масса зерна и число колосков в колосе) и Ишимская 98 (масса 1000 зерен и число колосков в колосе). Выделенные и охарактеризованные по ряду признаков сорта могут быть использованы в селекционном процессе как источники увеличения массы 1000 зерен, числа зерен колоса, числа колосков в колосе и массы зерна колоса. Показана тенденция увеличения массы 1000 зерен, массы зерна с колоса и числа колосков в колосе в зависимости от продолжительности вегетационного периода сортообразцов. Не выявлено сокращения вегетационного периода в годы эпифитотий у сортов, поражаемых болезнями, в сравнении с устойчивыми сортами.

Об авторах

В. В. Пискарев
Сибирский научно-исследовательский институт растениеводства и селекции – филиал Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»
Россия
пос. Краснообск, Новосибирская область


Н. И. Бойко
Сибирский научно-исследовательский институт растениеводства и селекции – филиал Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»
Россия
пос. Краснообск, Новосибирская область


И. В. Кондратьева
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Новосибирский государственный аграрный университет»
Россия
Новосибирск,


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