Признаки с отрицательными эффектами и их значение для селекции мягкой пшеницы (Triticum aestivum L.)


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ16.114

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Наличие у селекционных образцов признаков с отрицательными эффектами для урожайности вынуждает селекционеров браковать эти образцы в поле. В связи с этим возникает риск утраты ценных генотипов. В статье делается предположение, что такой признак может выступать в качестве индикатора высокой адаптивности сорта, если, несмотря на его наличие, данный сорт обладает высокой урожайностью. Цель исследования – оценка возможности применения гипотезы гетерозиса В.А. Струнникова в селекции мягкой пшеницы. Эксперимент проведен в 2010–2012 гг. на опытном поле ФГБНУ Алтайский НИИСХ. Объектом исследования была коллекция, состоящая из 75 сортов и линий яровой мягкой пшеницы различного происхождения и групп спелости. Образцы оценивали по урожайности и 8 признакам, сопряженным с урожайностью. В качестве оценки разных способов подбора пар для скрещивания проведен ретроспективный анализ урожайности гибридных популяций F2–F4 в 2010–2014 гг. Установлено, что скрещивания двух высокоурожайных сортов и высокоурожайных сортов, обладающих признаком с отрицательным эффектом, с донором этого признака ведут к возникновению высокоурожайных гибридных популяций. В последнем случае чаще формируются высокоурожайные популяции, которые селекционер реже забраковывает к 4-му поколению.


Об авторе

С. Б. Лепехов
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Алтайский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства»
Россия
Барнаул


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