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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

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ГЕНЫ, КОНТРОЛИРУЮЩИЕ СИНТЕЗ ФЛАВОНОИДНЫХ И МЕЛАНИНОВЫХ ПИГМЕНТОВ ЯЧМЕНЯ

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ18.369

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Аннотация

Помимо зеленой окраски, обусловленной хлорофиллом, у ячменя зерно и вегетативные органы могут быть окрашены соединениями фенольной природы, такими как меланины и флавоноидные пигменты антоцианы и проантоцианидины. В связи с широкой биологической активностью данных соединений и их неокрашенных предшественников в отношении растений и человека в последнее время наблюдается повышенный интерес к изучению генов, определяющих окраску у растений. Наиболее изученной является система генов, участвующих в синтезе флавоноидных пигментов. С семидесятых годов прошлого века в геноме ячменя идентифицированы и локализованы как структурные гены, кодирующие ферменты метаболизма флавоноидов, так и регуляторные гены, определяющие тканеспецифическое накопление данных пигментов в тканях зерна, а также в вегетативных органах. К настоящему времени выделены нуклеотидные последовательности регуляторных генов Ant1 и Ant2, определяющих накопление антоцианов в перикарпе зерна, гена Ant28, контролирующего биосинтез проантоцианидинов (конденсированных таннинов) в семенной оболочке, a также генов HvMpc2, HvMyc2, HvWD40, определяющих накопление антоцианов в алейроновом слое зерновки ячменя. Менее изучена меланиновая окраска. Ввиду сложной структуры и устойчивости к различным растворителям химическая природа данных пигментов до сих пор не установлена. Однако благодаря сравнительному анализу транскриптомов в окрашенных и неокрашенных чешуях колоса и зерна почти изогенных линий ячменя удалось идентифицировать метаболические пути, лежащие в осно- ве формирования меланиновой пигментации. В предложенной статье проводится обзор результатов работ, посвященных исследованиям генетического контроля формирования окраски у ячменя.

Об авторах

О. Ю. Шоева
Федеральный исследовательский центр, Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук
Россия

Новосибирск



К. В. Стрыгина
Федеральный исследовательский центр, Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук
Россия

Новосибирск



Е. К. Хлесткина
Федеральный исследовательский центр, Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук; Новосибирский национальный исследовательский государственный университет; Федеральный исследовательский центр Всероссийский институт генетических ресурсов растений им. Н.И. Вавилова (ВИР)
Россия

Новосибирск, Санкт-Петербург



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