ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТЬ РАСОВОГО СОСТАВА ЗАРАЗИХИ ПОДСОЛНЕЧНИКОВОЙ (ОROBANCHE CUMANA WALLR.) И НОВЫЕ СТРАТЕГИИ ЗАЩИТЫ ОТ ПАРАЗИТА


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ18.374

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Заразиха подсолнечниковая – паразитическое бесхлорофилльное растение, поражающее корневую систему растения-хозяина, поглощающее из нее воду, питательные вещества и выделяющее токсичные продукты обмена. Прорастание семян заразихи происходит благодаря стриголактонам, выделяемым в почву корнями подсолнечника, которые привлекают арбускулярные  микоризные грибы (АМ-грибы). Стриголактоны являются веществами «голода» растений и относятся к новому классу фитогормонов, участвующих во многих физиологических процессах, в том числе в регулировании доступности питательных веществ корнями. У заразихи был идентифицирован специфичный рецептор KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 DIVERGENT (KAI2d), который участвует в дифференцированном распознавании корневых экссудатов подсолнечни - ка. В геноме паразита установлено несколько генов KAI2d, кодирующих рецепторы KAI2d. В связи с открытием перечисленных веществ обсуждаются новые стратегии защиты подсолнечника от заразихи, которые находятся на стадии разработки. На основе стриголактонов создан синтетический препарат GR24 и его аналоги с целью внесения их в почву для стимулирования прорастания семян заразихи. Аминокислота метионин сильно ингибирует раннее развитие заразихи без фитотоксичного эффекта у подсолнечника. Семена заразихи хуже распознают корни подсолнечника, которые колонизированы АМ-грибами, бактериями Rhizobium leguminosarum, Azospirillum brasilense, из-за изменения состава корневых экссудатов в колонизированных растениях.  Большой интерес среди синтезированных элиситоров представляет ацибензолар-S-метил. Он вызывает системную устойчивость к бактери альным, грибным и вирусным болезням, индуцирует синтез PR-белков, а также активизирует защитные реакции подсолнечника на внедрение заразихи и приводит к одревеснению эндодермы и торможению проникновения гаусторий семян заразихи через клеточную стенку клеток корня.


Об авторах

С. Г. Хаблак
Агропромхолдинг «Кернел»
Украина

Научно-исследовательский центр.

Варва



Я. А. Абдуллаева
Агропромхолдинг «Кернел»
Украина

Испытательная лаборатория.

Варва



Я. С. Рябовол
Уманский национальный университет садоводства
Украина

Кафедра генетики, селекции растений и биотехнологии

Умань



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