Пространственно-временная организация репликации у дрозофилы и ее особенности в политенных хромосомах


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ19.473

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Drosophila melanogaster – один из популярных модельных организмов для изучения репликации ДНК. Начиная с 1960-х годов репликацию политенных хромосом активно изучали c помощью цитологических методов. В последние двадцать лет прогресс в изучении репликации определялся применением новых методов. Использование флуоресцентных красителей значительно улучшило разрешение цитологических подходов. Наличие геномной последовательности позволило изучить и соотнести репликацию ДНК со структурой хроматина и активностью генов для эухроматиновых районов в масштабе генома. Картирование границ цитологических структур политенных хромосом на последовательности генома дало возможность сравнить временные характеристики репликации районов хромосом в клеточных культурах и клетках слюнной железы. Были описаны новые особенности репликации как для хромосом диплоидных клеток, так и для политенных хромосом дрозофилы. Анализ временных профилей репликации показал, что организация репликации имеет в своей основе те же закономерности, что и у других хорошо изученных с точки зрения репликации видов, в частности человека. Ранняя репликация, как правило, приурочена к районам, характеризующимся высоким уровнем транскрипции, высокой плотностью генов и присутствием множественных сайтов потенциальной инициации репликации. Компактность генома D. melanogaster вносит некоторые особенности в организацию ее репликации. Последовательность репликации генома в политенных хромосомах и хромосомах диплоидных клеток имеет много общего: инициация репликации приурочена к одним и тем же районам, между которыми лежат протяженные участки генома, где репликация происходит преимущественно от краев к середине. Важнейшими особенностями репликации в политенных хромосомах являются низкая скорость репликационных вилок и зависимость протяженности S-фазы от множества как внутренних, так и внешних факторов. В политенных хромосомах D. melanogaster скорость движения репликационных вилок зависит от присутствия в хроматине белков SUUR и Rif1.

Об авторах

Т. Д. Колесникова
Институт молекулярной и клеточной биологии Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук; Новосибирский национальный исследовательский государственный университет.
Россия
Новосибирск.


О. В. Антоненко
Институт молекулярной и клеточной биологии Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук.
Россия
Новосибирск.


И. В. Макунин
Институт молекулярной и клеточной биологии Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук; Исследовательский вычислительный центр, Квинслендский университет.
Россия
Новосибирск; Сент-Люсия, Квинсленд, Австралия.


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