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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

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Молекулярно-генетические основы устойчивости семян к окислительному стрессу при хранении

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ20.47-o

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Аннотация

Сохранение генетического разнообразия растений, в том числе хозяйственно значимых культур, является основой продовольственной безопасности. В мире около 90 % генетического разнообразия культурных растений сохраняется в виде семян в генных банках. В процессе хранения в семенах накапливаются свободные радикалы, в первую очередь активные формы кислорода (АФК). Повышение уровня АФК вызывает окислительный стресс, который негативно влияет на качество семян и может привести к полной потере их жизнеспособности. В обзоре обобщены сведения о биохимических процессах, влияющих на продолжительность жизни семян. Проанализированы данные о деструктивном действии свободных радикалов по отношению к макромолекулам клетки растения и пути устранения избыточного количества АФК в растениях, наиболее важным из которых является аскорбат-глутатионовый путь. Рассматривается вопрос взаимосвязи периода покоя и длительности сохранения семян. В исследованиях на семенах разных видов растений была выявлена отрицательная корреляция между периодом покоя и долголетием семян, тогда как в работах с семенами Arabidopsis различные авторы выявили как положительную корреляцию между периодом покоя и длительностью сохранения семян, так и отрицательную. Отрицательная корреляция между периодом покоя и жизнеспособностью, вероятно, свидетельствует о способности семян адаптироваться к изменяющимся условиям окружающей среды. Нами проанализирована информация по генам Arabidopsis, связанным с жизнеспособностью семян. В настоящее время выделено значительное количество локусов и генов, влияющих на долголетие семян. Статья знакомит с современными исследованиями жизнеспособности семян ячменя. Локусы количественных признаков (QTL), связанные с долголетием семян ячменя, были определены на хромосомах 2Н, 5Н и 7Н. В изученных областях QTL выявлены гены Zeo1, Ale, nud, nadp-me и HvGR. Однако вопрос о том, какие гены являются маркерами жизнеспособности семян растений определенного вида, остается открытым.

Об авторах

Н. А. Швачко
Федеральный исследовательский центр Всероссийский институт генетических ресурсов растений им. Н.И. Вавилова (ВИР)
Россия
Санкт-Петербург


Е. К. Хлесткина
Федеральный исследовательский центр Всероссийский институт генетических ресурсов растений им. Н.И. Вавилова (ВИР)
Россия
Санкт-Петербург


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