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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

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Научное обеспечение селекции и семеноводства Сибири в XXI в.

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ21.050

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Аннотация

Аграрное производство Российской Федерации представляет собой стержень экономической системы государства, от развития которого во многом зависит уровень жизни и благосостояния населения. Оно обеспечивает основу безопасности страны. В статье рассматриваются вопросы продовольственной безопасности Сибири, перспективы и проблемы селекции растений в Сибирском федеральном округе – самой крупной аграрной территории РФ. Площадь сельскохозяйственных угодий в Сибирском федеральном округе около 50 млн га, здесь производится 13 % валового объема зерна страны. В Сибири, как и во всей России, преобладает бесперспективное экстенсивное земледелие, основанное на эксплуатации естественного плодородия почв, поэтому селекция должна учитывать не только несоблюдение технологий возделывания новых сортов интенсивного типа, но и этот немаловажный фактор. Несмотря на то что капитальные вложения в селекцию являются наиболее окупаемыми в растениеводстве, селекционеры до сих пор работают в сложных экономических условиях. Обсуждается использование в селекции современных молекулярно-биологических методов, биоинженерии и IT технологий. Обосновывается необходимость проведения кардинальной реформы отрасли, включая признание селекции фундаментальной наукой, существенное увеличение ее бюджетного финансирования, определение стратегии ее развития на федеральном и региональном уровнях, дальнейшее целенаправленное расширение сети селекционных центров, восстановление и укрепление в аграрных университетах профильных для отрасли кафедр селекции и семеноводства, выделение бюджетных мест в вузах региона для подготовки селекционеров, способных сохранить и упрочить передовые позиции страны в селекции растений и создавать конкурентоспособные на мировом аграрном рынке сорта нового поколения основных сельскохозяйственных культур. В противном случае накопившиеся к настоящему времени проблемы могут привести к возникновению новых долгосрочных рисков нестабильности в отрасли. Делается вывод о необходимости бережного сохранения преемственности, как специалистов, так и селекционного (селектируемого) материала. Рассматриваются особенности регулирующих функций государства и аграрной науки в селекции растений и в отрасли в целом.

Об авторе

Н. П. Гончаров
Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук
Россия

Новосибирск



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