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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

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Генетические маркеры в мясном овцеводстве

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ16.139

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Аннотация

Мясное животноводство, в том числе овцеводство, – важнейшая отрасль сельского хозяйства. Повышение производительности и улучшение качества мяса рассматриваются сегодня как приоритеты развития отрасли. В последнее время значительные результаты в мясном овцеводстве получены благодаря использованию достижений генетики. В селекционных программах обычно отбирали производителей на основании качества потомства, родственников или предков. В то же время применение молекулярно- генетической технологии может вывести такие работы на новый методический уровень. На сегодняшний день все еще нерешенной остается проблема установления достоверной связи между признаками продуктивности и генетическими маркерами, поскольку в отличие, например, от моногенных заболеваний, признаки продуктивности обладают комплексным характером и их проявление зависит от баланса между различными физиологическими функциями, нарушение в котором, даже при кажущейся положительной роли превалирующего элемента, может привести к снижению продуктивности в целом. Селекция на основе генетических маркеров продуктивности направлена на работу с животными с высоким генетическим потенциалом по приросту живой массы и качеству мяса. В обзоре описаны перспективные гены – потенциальные маркеры продуктивности в мясном овцеводстве. Подробно рассмотрено использование гена гормона роста, каллипигии, кальпаина и кальпастатина в качестве перспективных генетических маркеров для селекции овец. Вместе с тем необходимо констатировать, что, несмотря на многочисленные сообщения о потенциальных генетических маркерах продуктивности, заметного влияния на повышение экономических показателей в овцеводстве молекулярно- генетические методы пока не оказали.

Об авторах

А. В. Дейкин
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт биологии гена Российской академии наук
Россия
Москва, Россия


М. И. Селионова
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт овцеводства и козоводства»
Россия
Ставрополь, Россия


А. Ю. Криворучко
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Ставропольский государственный аграрный университет»
Россия
Ставрополь, Россия


Д. В. Коваленко
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт овцеводства и козоводства»
Россия
Ставрополь, Россия


В. И. Трухачев
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Ставропольский государственный аграрный университет»
Россия
Ставрополь, Россия


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