Филогенетические связи между палеоарктическими видами Anopheles комплекса maculipennis (Diptera: Culicidae), установленные при использовании разных методов. Проблема консенсуса


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ16.189

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Аннотация

Выяснение филогенетических отношений в близкородственных группах эпидемиологически значимых организмов – важная задача паразитологии и эволюционной теории. Одной из таких групп является комплекс видов Anopheles maculipennis, распространенных в Евразии, Северной Африке и Северной Америке. Изучены опубликованные схемы филогенеза палеоарктической части этого комплекса, построенные на основе скрещиваемости видов, исследования политенных хромосом, изоферментов, кутикулярных углеводов и ITS2 генов рРНК. Отсутствие высокого соответствия между ними обусловило идею создания консенсусной схемы филогенетических связей указанной группы видов. С помощью различных алгоритмов (Neighbor-joining, Minimum Evolution, Maximum Parsimony и Maximum Likelihood) построены филогенетические схемы по последовательностям фрагмента гена COI, вариабельного участка D2 28S рДНК и ITS2 генов рРНК. Обоснованы, построены и обсуждены две консенсусные схемы филогении палеоарктических видов maculipennis. Одна из них опирается в основном на результаты молекулярно-генетического анализа. Вторая создана на основе исследования политенных хромосом, географического распространения и экологии. Филогенетические связи An. beklemishevi противоречивы. По молекулярным маркерам An. beklemishevi близок к другим палеоарктическим видам, однако далек от них по фиксированным хромосомным инверсиям. Показана удаленность этого вида от группы неоарктических видов ветви An. quadrimaculatus. Предложенные схемы отображают два возможных сценария эволюции комплекса maculipennis. Различия между ними обусловлены как принятыми в качестве аргументов фактами и рассуждениями, так и допущениями различных методов реконструкции филогенеза. Выдвинута идея о существенной роли несоразмерности астрономического и биологического времени в интерпретации эволюционных процессов. Для более детального решения проблемы филогенеза палеоарктической ветви комплекса maculipennis требуется расширение знаний о видах, его составляющих.


Об авторах

О. В. Ваулин
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»
Россия
Новосибирск, Россия


Ю. М. Новиков
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет», кафедра цитологии и генетики
Россия
Томск, Россия


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