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Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции

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Устойчивость картофеля к карантинным болезням

https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ17.223

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Аннотация

Возбудитель рака картофеля Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Perc. и золотистая картофельная нематода (ЗКН) Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber) Behrens – карантинные виды, раcпространенные на территории Российской Федерации и в большинстве стран мира. Бледная картофельная нематода G. pallida (Stone) Behrens на территории РФ не выявлена, хотя в странах Европейского союза встречается повсеместно. В обзоре приведены сведения о вредоносности S. endobioticum и ЗКН. В настоящее время в мире выявлено 43 патотипа S. endobioticum и 5 патотипов ЗКН. На территории РФ обнаружен только первый (D1) патотип возбудителя рака и Ro1 патотип ЗКН. Представлены современные наборы сортов-дифференциаторов для S. endobioticum и ЗКН и рассмотрены методы определения патотипного состава, в том числе попытки разработать молекулярные маркеры для определения расовой принадлежности S. endobioticum. Приведены данные по устойчивости современного сортимента картофеля к этим карантинным заболеваниям и методы определения устойчивости. Рассмотрены современные данные по генетике устойчивости картофеля к S. endobioticum, G. rostochiensis и G. pallida, включая картирование и клонирование R-генов. Рассмотрены результаты оценки эффективности использования молекулярных маркеров в маркер-вспомогательном отборе (MAS) устойчивых генотипов. Приведены результаты использования мультиплексных систем, позволяющих одновременно выявлять аллельный состав нескольких генов устойчивости к одному или к разным патогенам у образцов картофеля. Рассмотрены механизмы количественной устойчивости картофеля к S. endobioticum и ЗКН и адаптационных процессов в популяциях возбудителей, позволяющие преодолевать уcтойчивость растения-хозяина. Возделывание в производстве слабо повреждаемых ЗКН сортов может стимулировать адаптационную изменчивость возбудителя и приводить к отбору вирулентных патотипов в течение двух-трех генераций патогена.

Об авторах

А. В. Хютти
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт защиты растений»; Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»
Россия

Санкт-Петербург, Пушкин;

Новосибирск



О. Ю. Антонова
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»; Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Всероссийский институт генетических ресурсов растений им. Н.И. Вавилова» (ВИР)
Россия

Новосибирск;

Санкт-Петербург



Н. В. Мироненко
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт защиты растений»; Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»
Россия

Санкт-Петербург, Пушкин;

Новосибирск



Т. А. Гавриленко
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Всероссийский институт генетических ресурсов растений им. Н.И. Вавилова» (ВИР); Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет»
Россия

Санкт-Петербург

 



О. С. Афанасенко
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт защиты растений»; Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»
Россия

Санкт-Петербург, Пушкин;

Новосибирск



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