Изменчивость морфометрических признаков хвои на клоновой плантации плюсовых деревьев сосны обыкновенной (Pinus sylvestris L.)


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ17.237

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Формирование ассортимента плюсовых деревьев для лесосеменных плантаций остается наиболее сложной проблемой современной лесной селекции. Она связана с опасностью возникновения инбредной депрессии семенного потомства плюсовых деревьев, не обладающих выраженными механизмами защиты от самоопыления. Сосна обыкновенная относится к важнейшим в хозяйственном плане древесным видам. Разнообразные характеристики ее хвои – предмет многоплановых научных изысканий. Размер хвои признан косвенным показателем энергии роста сосны. Наши исследования были направлены на селекционную оценку плюсовых деревьев сосны обыкновенной по морфометрическим признакам хвои. Плюсовые деревья представлены своими клонами в составе лесосеменных плантаций первого порядка на территории Нижегородской области. При сборе исходного материала обеспечивалась элиминация дифференцирующего влияния факторов среды и времени. Несходство плюсовых деревьев по широкому перечню признаков проявлялось в неодинаковой степени. Поскольку неоднородность состава изучаемой лесосеменной плантации сформировалась на фоне выровненных экологических условий, возникли основания рассматривать ее как обусловленную преимущественно наследственными причинами. Это подтвердили результаты дисперсионного анализа. Установлено преобладающее влияние несходства между ортетами на проявление фенотипической неоднородности их потомства. Зафиксирован аналогичный эффект, связанный с различиями между раметами, который по своей величине сопоставим с остаточной дисперсией. Выраженная неоднородность состава и ее наследственная детерминированность создали условия для результативного проведения многомерных сравнений плюсовых деревьев. Факторный анализ сформировал из общего набора морфометрических признаков хвои комплексные независимые переменные. Они использованы в кластерном анализе наряду с исходными признаками. Кластерный анализ выявил в составе лесосеменной плантации плюсовые деревья, в наибольшей мере отличающиеся от других. В схемах скрещивания для достижения эффекта гетерозиса и исключения риска инбредной депрессии они могут комбинироваться со всеми остальными плюсовыми деревьями.

Об авторах

Н. Н. Бессчетнова
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Нижегородская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия»
Россия
Нижний Новгород


В. П. Бессчетнов
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Нижегородская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия»
Россия
Нижний Новгород


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