ВЛИЯНИЕ ЧУЖЕРОДНОГО ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКОГО МАТЕРИАЛА НА ПРОЯВЛЕНИЕ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННО ВАЖНЫХ ПРИЗНАКОВ МЯГКОЙ ПШЕНИЦЫ (T. aestivum L.)


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ18.367

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Одной из актуальных проблем современной генетики и селекции является расширение генетического разнообразия мягкой пшеницы по генам устойчивости к биотическим и абиотическим стрессовым факторам, урожайности и качества зерна. Дикорастущие и культурные родичи c различным уровнем гомеологии геномов постоянно используются для расширения генетического разнообразия мягкой пшеницы по генам, повышающим устойчивость к болезням и вредоносным насекомым. Ведутся работы по поиску и интродукции генетических факторов, влияющих на содержание белка в зерне и компоненты урожайности. Несмотря на то что локусы устойчивости в организме донора оказывают длительную защиту против популяций патогенов, разнообразных по расовому составу, интрогрессия целевых локусов в геном мягкой пшеницы может приводить к значительному снижению эффективности генов, вплоть до полной потери экспрессии. Перенос чужеродных генов от отдаленных видов происходит в составе целых хромосом, хромосомных плеч либо протяженных транслоцированных фрагментов, которые вместе с целевыми локусами могут содержать дополнительный генетический материал, оказывающий влияние на другие хозяйственно ценные признаки. Поэтому при интродукции генов устойчивости к болезням в коммерческие сорта пшеницы важно учитывать эффекты чужеродных замещений и транслокаций на такие признаки, как тип развития, время колошения, продуктивность, качество зерна, хлебопекарные качества. Негативные эффекты, наблюдаемые при интрогрессии генов от видов с отдаленными геномами, принято связывать с чужеродным хроматином, который переносится вместе с целевым локусом. Однако во многих случаях такие эффекты могут быть результатом влияния генотипической среды реципиента. Публикации, в которых приводятся результаты сравнительной оценки сортов и селекционных линий с чужеродными замещениями и транслокациями, не всегда  позволяют однозначно ответить на этот вопрос. В настоящей статье представлен обзор литературных данных по влиянию  чужеродных интрогрессий на хозяйственно важные признаки мягкой пшеницы.

Об авторе

И. Н. Леонова
Федеральный исследовательский центр, Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук
Россия

Новосибирск



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