Перспективы использования диких сородичей в селекции гороха (Pisum sativum L.)


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ15.019

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Потенциал дикорастущих сородичей как важного источника генетического разнообразия для селекции далеко не исчерпан.
У гороха они представлены видом Pisum fulvum и подвидом P. sativum subsp. еlatius. Дикорастущие представители подвида P. abyssinicum не известны. Дикие формы гороха характеризуются раскрываемостью (растрескиванием) зрелых бобов и баллистическим рассеиванием семян. Культурный горох представляет небольшую филетическую ветвь даже внутри P. sativum. Перспективные направления использования диких форм гороха:
1) устойчивость к вредителям и патогенам;
2) устойчивость к абиотическому стрессу;
3) питательная и кормовая ценность;
4) агротехнические преимущества (ветвистость, зимостойкость и пр.);
5) симбиотическая азотфиксация.
P. fulvum устойчив к гороховой зерновке, ржавчине, мучнистой росе и аскохитозу. Некоторые P. sativum subsp. elatius устойчивы к нематоде, заразихе, мучнистой росе, фузариозам, аскохитозу и белой гнили. Pisum sativum subsp. elatius реагируют на яйцекладку зерновки разрастаниями стенки боба, контролируемыми геном Np. Pisum abyssinicum устойчив
к нематоде и стеблевой гнили. У P. fulvum высокая скорость роста корней, у некоторых P. sativum subsp. elatius снижена испаряемость влаги, а образец JI2055 из Италии выживает при –20 °С. QTL-анализ проведен для признаков устойчивости P. fulvum к зерновке, мучнистой росе и ржавчине и для устойчивости P. sativum subsp. elatius к заразихе, стеблевой гнили, аскохитозу. Получены интрогрессивные линии, перенесшие устойчивость к зерновке
от P. fulvum к P. sativum. Практическому использованию диких форм гороха препятствует недостаточная информированность об их разнообразии и отличиях от культурных. Необходимо интенсифицировать исследования полезных свойств диких сородичей гороха и выявление их природного разнообразия, которое стремительно исчезает. 


Об авторе

О. Э. Костерин
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Федеральный исследовательский центр Институт цитологии и генетики Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук», Новосибирск, Россия Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Новосибирский национальный исследовательский государственный университет», Новосибирск, Россия
Россия


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