Устойчивость картофеля к тлям


https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ17.225

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Обсуждается проблема устойчивости генетических ресурсов картофеля к тлям. Практически во всех литературных источниках анализируется резистентность к персиковой (Myzus persicae Sulzer) и большой картофельной (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) тлям. Генофонд Solanum tuberosum L. относительно беден устойчивыми формами. Высокоустойчивые к M. persicae образцы выявлены среди 36 из 86 изученных диких видов картофеля. Наибольшее число устойчивых форм найдено в пределах видов S. bulbocastanum Dun., S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Phil., S. canasense Hawkes и S. stoloniferum Schlechtd. et Bché. Высокоустойчивые к M. euphorbiae формы относятся к 24 из 85 изученных видов, к 10 из 18 серий; наибольшее число устойчивых форм содержат виды S. bulbocastanum, S. stoloniferum и S. demissum Lindl. Выявлены образцы диких видов со специфической и групповой устойчивостью к тлям. В качестве основного механизма устойчивости к M. persicae и M. euphorbiae рассматривается железистое опушение листьев и стеблей таких видов, как S. polyadenium Greenm., S. tarijense и S. berthaultii Hawkes. Гибриды от скрещивания S. tuberosum с S. berthaultii широко использовались в селекционных программах, однако наличие железистых волосков оказалось сцеплено с рядом нежелательных признаков. Ожидается, что с помощью молекулярно-генетических методов удастся преодолеть ассоциацию обусловленной трихомами устойчивости к насекомым S. ber-thaultii с нежелательными агрономическими признаками. При исследовании антифидантной активности содержащихся в картофеле гликоалкалоидов и их аглюконов получены противоречивые результаты. Многочисленные работы связывают устойчивость картофеля к тлям с физиологическим состоянием растений. Выявлены различия между образцами диких видов картофеля по локализации факторов устойчивости (поверхность листа, эпидермис, мезофилл, флоэма), что свидетельствует о различии механизмов резистентности у исследованных форм. Большое теоретическое и практическое значение имеют работы, нацеленные на изучение механизмов индуцируемой устойчивости картофеля к тлям.

Об авторе

Е. Е. Радченко
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение Федеральный исследовательский центр Всероссийский институт генетических ресурсов растений им. Н.И. Вавилова» (ВИР)
Россия
Санкт-Петербург


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